What is Geotextile?
Geotextile (in Ghana) is a synthetic permeable material that is used to enhance soil properties. It can separate, filter, enhance drainage, protect, and filter when it is used in conjunction with soils. Geotextiles are the ideal material for many construction projects like harbours, roads and landfills, drainage structures as well as other civil works.
Types of Geotextiles in Ghana:
Geotextiles are composed of polymers like polypropylene or polyester. They can be classified into three categories based on how they are made:
1) Woven Fabric Geotextiles
2) Non-Woven Geotextiles
3) Knitted Geotextiles
1. Woven Fabric Geotextile in Ghana
Geotextiles that are commonly found in the market are of the weaved kind and are made using techniques that have a similarity to the weaving of typical clothes textiles. This kind of material has the distinctive appearance of two sets of strings or yarns. The yarn that runs across its length is known as a warp while the one running perpendicular to it is referred to as weft. (As illustrated in the image below)
2. Non-Woven Geotextile in Ghana
Non-woven geotextiles are produced using either the continuous filament fibre or short-staple fibre. Fibres are bonded can be achieved using chemical, thermal, or mechanical methods as well as a mix of both.
Geo-fibres made by mechanical interlocking, thermal or chemical bonding can have an average thickness of 0.5-1 millimetres while chemically bonded non-woven are typically around 3 millimetres.
3. Knitted Geotextile in Ghana
The production of knitted geotextiles is the process of interlocking several yarn loops. The knitted geosynthetics are created knitting along with a different technique of making geosynthetics, like weaving.
In addition to these three geotextiles, additional geosynthetics are geonets, geogrids and geo-composites. Each with its own unique characteristics and applications for specific applications.
Functions of Geotextiles:
The way in which a geotextile operates the geotextile in any application is determined by six distinct roles:
The geotextile’s separation feature is primarily used for road construction. Geotextile is a barrier to the mixing of soils that are adjacent. For instance, by segregating fine subgrade soil from soil aggregates in the base course the geotextile protects drainage characteristics and the strength that the material aggregate has.
The areas that are applicable include:
Between subgrade and the stone base, both unpaved and asphalted roads and airfields.
Between subgrade in railroads.
Between the landfills and the stones base courses.
Between geomembranes and the sand drainage layers.
The equilibrium of the geotextile-to soil system permits adequate fluid flow, with a limited soil loss along the plane that the geotextile is in. Permeability and porosity are the most important properties of geotextiles, which require infiltration.
One common example of the filtering function involves the installation of geotextiles in a drain on the pavement’s edge as seen in the image above.
Geotextile introduced into the soil can increase the tensile strength of soil in the same way that steel can do in concrete. The increase in strength of soil because of the introduction of geotextile can be explained through the following three mechanisms:
Lateral restraint via friction interfacial between geotextile and aggregates of soil.
Inducing the bearing failure plane of the surface to form an alternative, stronger shear surface.
The type of support that membranes provide for the wheel’s load.
A non-woven geotextile is infused between asphalt layers. Geotextiles absorb asphalt, and be a waterproofing membrane, reducing the vertical flow of water through the structure of the pavement.
Uses of Geotextile (in Ghana) in Construction:
The application of geotextiles in the field of engineering is huge. Geotextile’s use is explained in the context of the nature of the work.
1. Road Work
Geotextiles are used extensively for the construction of roads. They strengthen soils by adding force to them. It can be used for an effective dewatering layer within the roadbed. Geotextiles require to keep their permeability, without sacrificing their separation purposes.
2. Railway Works
The woven or non-woven fabrics are utilized to segregate soil from sub-soil but without impeding groundwater circulation when the soil is unstable. The fabric’s wrapping keeps the soil from moving away from the direction of the vibrations and shocks generated by moving trains.
It is utilized to control mud. To improve the condition of the trails and paths which are used by cattle, or light traffic, nonwoven materials are employed and folded in overlapping, resulting in pipes or a large amount of grit.
Geotextiles used to remove soil contaminants and to provide one size of granular material used to move water is becoming thought of as an economically viable alternative to conventional methods. Geotextiles act as a filtering device to drains within earth dams on highways and roads, within reservoirs and behind walls of retaining and deep drainage trenches and in agriculture.
5. River, Canals and Coastal Works
Geotextiles guard riverbanks against erosion caused by streams or lapping. When combined with encrustations made of natural or artificial, they function as a filtering material.
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1. What Does Geotextile Mean?
Geotextiles are permeable synthetic textiles. It is typically made using polypropylene polymers or polyester. Geotextiles help to improve soil’s stability, offer erosion control and aid in the drainage process.
Geotextiles are a variety that can be made by using various polymers and manufacturing techniques that allow them to be used in various civil construction projects. Geosynthetics and geotextiles products like geogrids, Geonets and more are ideal for geotechnical as well as environmental engineering designs.
Corrosionpedia Explains Geotextile
Geotextiles are permeable fabrics or fabric that is used to segregate filters, strengthen and protect. For rail and road applications, they permit the separation and filtering of layerings of granular material. They also serve to shield membranes from erosion for landfill applications as well as in the defence of coastal areas. Geotextiles have high strength and allow for the highest slope support, stabilization, and erosion control. There are three kinds of geotextiles: non-woven knitted or woven.
Non-woven geotextiles, also known as filter fabrics mostly used for aggregate drains asphalt pavement overlays, as well as erosion control.
Woven geotextiles are made of the structure of a planar fabric that can be flat monofilaments or round. Woven slit-film geotextiles are generally employed when high strength properties are required, and the need for filtration is less essential. Woven monofilament geotextiles are preferred when both the strength and the filtration requirement must be taken into consideration, e.g. shoreline rip rap.
Geotextiles knitted by knitting. Through this process, an interlocking loop of yarn is created.